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11. CITY SMELLS

One of the nasty things about old cities was that they were so dirty and smelly.

This made them dangerous places to live in. We have all read about the Black Death, the Great Plague - and there were the cholera epidemics that swept through London just over 100 years ago.

Western civilisation failed to cope with the problems of keeping their cities clean and healthy until fairly recent times.

12. BUT IN AFRICA

Even today many cities in Africa and Asia have not overcome the problem of sanitation.

Yet it was in India that the challenge of city sanitation was solved - over 4000 years ago. About the same tine as some heathen savages started shifting the first stones into place at Stonehenge.

13. KOHEHJO-DARO?

What? Mohenjo-Daro? Harappa? Where and what are they?

These were 2 cities 400 miles apart about 300 miles north of modern Karachi. These were the hygienic cities of 4000 years ago. The cities about a mile square v-are planned with straight streets. Water was piped to all but the poorest houses.

The dwellings had bathrooms and lavatories. Some even had dust chutes - which meant that dustmen had made their appearance.

The sewerage was channelled away in gutters. These even had covers that could be removed for cleaning.

14. CITIES OF BUSINESSMEN

A race of people called the Phoenicians built cities along the shores of the Mediterranean. They were hard, thrusting, businessmen. They even reached the shores of Britain to trade.

Their first 2 cities were Tyre and Sidon, crowded, bustling seaports where everyone was on the make.

15. AND TO CARTHAGE

Their most famous city was Carthage, near where Tunis now stands. It was a vast business metropolis ruled by a small, cruel group of rich men.

This was one of the most crowded cities of any time - ancient or modern.  Only Hong Kong in modern times can compare in overcrowding with Carthage.

The houses of Carthage were crowded behind the city walls. Flats were built that towered up to 7 storeys.

For the first time accommodation was built for renting on a commercial basis. The speculative builder and landlord had arrived - in the city where the savage God, Moloch, was worshipped with human sacrifices.

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