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10. SRUB, SCRUB

The Dutch housewives went busily scrubbing outside their houses - to the pavements. They also kept the roads clean and the gutters clear.

An Englishman from dirty London remarked that they were so busy cleaning their houses that they never washed themselves.

11. AMSTERDAM

Amsterdam was the most cosmopolitan city in Europe. It was a town of canals and 40 bridges, spreading from its centre like a fan.

Amsterdam provided a remarkable example of municipal achievement in town planning

12. HOW TO DO THINGS

In 1595 a Board of Directors of City Works was set up in Amsterdam.

Its objective was to expand and plan the growth of the city. The Board bought by com misery purchase the surrounding marshland and reclaimed it.

It was then divided into lots and sold as housing sites - all subject to strict building regulations.

13. BUILDING CONTROL

The frontage and depth of the houses was controlled by these regulations - which also required 80 ft. spaces for gardens.

The purchasers had to agree not to use the houses for certain industrial purposes. They had to agree to use a specified type of brick and to pay for the roadmaking outside their houses.

14. ON PILES

This achievement was a fine planning achievement. To build this way on marshy ground was a tremendous engineering feat.

All the foundations had to be built on wooden piles, 13ft. to 59ft. long. The foundations had to be approved by municipal inspectors before building started. They did a thorough job.

When one pile was recently examined, it was found after 300 years to be in excellent condition.

15. BACK IN LONDON

In London in 1625 the stuttering ill-fated Charles I succeeded his father.

He had his father's anxiety to curb the growth of London. Within 2 months of his accession he issued his first order banning all further building in London.

16. STRONG ARM TACTICS

Charles used the Star Court Chamber to back up his orders. The use of this Court attracted considerable hostility at the time. It is still criticised as interfering with the rights of free Englishmen.

One of the rights of free Englishmen was to profit from the plight of the poor. Landlords, the Rachmans of the day, would cram immigrants into rickety tenements.

The Star Court Chamber ordered that landlords who did this should make a special contribution to the upkeep of the poor.

17. POOR LANDLORDS

In one case the Star Court imprisoned 2 free English landlords who had been profiteering.

Their properties should according to the law have been demolished. Instead the Star Court allowed the tenants to continue living in the blocks rent free.

18. LICENCE TO BUILD

Licences could be obtained 10 build. The Earl of Bedford got a building permit in 1631 to develop the Covent Garden area.

Aided by a great architect, Inigo Jones, he made a particularly English contribution to city housing.

He developed the first of the London squares - but this one was for the wealthy.

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