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16. FOREIGNERS IN MOSCOW

Despite the barbaric state of Russia, foreigners had gone to live and work in Moscow.

But in 1627 they had been evicted from central Moscow and confined to a walled village in the suburbs. In the Nemetskaya Sloboda (as it was called), foreigners were closely watched by suspicious Russians.

17. NO SMOKING

Another hazard was the ferocity of Russian law. In 1634 the sale and smoking of tobacco was banned. Offenders had their noses split as punishment.

18. PETER THE GREAT

A new ruler, Peter the Great (1689-1725) determined to change things in Russia.

He decided to build a new city in the swampy marshes of North Russia. It was called St. Petersburg (now Leningrad).

40,000 serfs were rounded up to build the city. They were crowded into slave camps guarded by armed soldiers. Underfed, overworked, they died in their thousands.

 

19. ST. PETERSBURG

But a fine city arose from the marshes. By 1712 it had been declared capital of Russia.

When Peter insisted on the first census (with the death penalty for avoidance), there were 40,000 people living in St. Petersburg.

20. SMOKING OBLIGATORY

Peter was a ruthless dynamo of a man who galvanised Russia into activity - but many Russians suffered from his energetic ambition,

Peter added insult to injury - he took up the banned habit of smoking. And he insisted that all courtiers smoked too.

21. CONTRASTING STYLES

Two very different societies - in England and Russia - built two different capital cities. But neither private enterprise nor state tyranny in their city building paid any attention to the needs of the poor.

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