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8. THE CITY STATES

The rich migrated to these cities and they set up their own small kingdoms -city states.

These city states fought each other and inside the city there was constant warfare.

'Romeo and Juliet' is set against a typical family feud of the times.

9. FORTRESS TOWERS

The families built towers 150/300 feet high in the cities to defend themselves.

Florence had more than 150 towers; Rome had 500. From the distance medival Rome looked like a modern industrial town with its towers sticking up like factory chimneys.

 

10. IN LONDON

There were no such towers in London, Just the Tower of London for the King.

London was now established as the capital of England. It was an important centre of trade.

By 1377 its population had grown to 34,971. We know this from a tax survey taken in that year.

11. NEW AND EXPANDING TOWNS

You have heard of new and expanding towns set up after the last war.

But this movement started in England 700 years ago. Edward I (1272-1307) had a mania for starting up new towns.

He established 40 new towns in England and Wales; another 50 in his French territories.

12. A CONFERENCE

Edward I was very much a man of the future.

To celebrate his efforts, he held a conference to town planners at Harwick in 1297.

The conference was able to look on more than 100 years of new town growth during which more than 120 new towns had been set up in England.

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