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13. AND IN VENICE

In the crowded island city of Venice space was so scarce that even rich merchants had to live in small, modest houses.

They had no room for servants. Foreigners were shocked to find that venerable Senators had to do their own shopping.

Yet in 1485 (400 years before England) Venice set up a Board of Public Health. It controlled rubbish disposal, street cleaning, burials and prostitution.

14. LEONARDO DA VINO

The great genius Leonardo da Vinci was apr lied at the death toll from the plague in Milan in 1484/5.

He did not blame Jews, witches or foreigners. He advised the Duke of Milan that it was due to overcrowding and bad sanitation.

15. GARDEN CITIES OF TOMORROW - AND TOMORROW

Leonardo recommended building a less crowded Milan. He said that the overspill population should be housed in 10 new towns, each with a population of 30,000.

When the Englishman, Ebenezer Howard, wrote his book "Garden Cities of Tomorrow", he suggested new towns with a population of 32,000. But that was in the 1890s.

The garden cities were eventually to bloom in the 20th century at Letchworth and Welwyn.

16. MORE IDEAS

Da Vinci was brimming with ideas. He extended his brilliant mind to traffic control.

He suggested that roads should be at different levels with pedestrians separated from vehicles.

But he was one of those mad artist chaps.

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