- 3 -



In "Utopia" there were 54 towns - evenly spaced out across the country with 23 miles between each settlement.

There were fine 20 ft. wide streets between the houses. The houses had 2 skins - the inner of plaster and the outer of flint.

The roofs were carefully built to withstand fire and wind; and each house was to have a large front and back garden. If anyone came forward with such ideas today he would not be executed. He would be laughed at and told that his plans were Utopian.


In Germany there were still city states. The citites were small, the biggest had no more than 30,000 people.

A description of the city of Nuremberg in the 16th century sounds as if in one place More's dream of a Utopian city had come true.


Nuremberg had paved city streets from the mid 1300s. A city architect with a gang of artisans and labourers was appointed to keep the streets in good repair. He inspected daily and ordered immediate work. With German thoroughness there were precise instructions for laying the stones. It was even set down how many hammer blows should be made on each stone when laying it.


The city fathers also wanted their people kept clean.

Nuremberg had 14 licenced bath houses with prices kept low - children were admitted free.

Municipal workers were let off an hour early to get to the baths.

There was also the inevitable German inspector to check on the cleanliness of the baths.



In Nuremberg each family had its own house with separate bedrooms for the children and parents. There were no tenements.

Outside Nuremberg the iron and flour mills had provided rent-free houses for their workers. These were repaired and whitewashed each year at the owners' expense.

Widows of workers were moved to smaller houses where they could continue to live rent free.


Such municipal organisation would probably have been unacceptable to the Londoner living in his crowded tenement.

Some Continental towns did sometimes overdo things. Such a city was Geneva. It was a poor, crowded Protestant city heavily defended against Catholic attack.