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13. THE TRADING CENTRE

Elizabethan London was dirty, chaotic and overcrowded.

But it was already developing into Europe's greatest trading centre and port.

It sent pirates and merchants out all over the world.

14. HOLY RUSSIA

One trading mission reached the strange and barbaric land of Russia. It was a country that had struggled for its existence for centuries against the Asiatic hordes.

Even in Elizabethan times Moscow was raided and burned by the Tartars.

15. MOSCOW

Moscow was a huge city - bigger in
mid-Elizabethan times than London.

Unlike London it had been planned - rather like a spider's web with 2 ring roads circling the city.

16. IVAN THE TERRIBLE

Russia was governed by one of the many mad rulers in its history. A dynamic Tsar - Ivan the Terrible.

But he welcomed and he helped the English traders. He was very taken with Elizabeth and exchanged many gifts with her. So infatuated was he with the English and Elizabeth that he was known as the English Tsar.

 

17. ENGLISH IN MOSCOW

The English in Moscow found it a strange place.

They complained about how drunk the Russians got and how much they swore.

18. RUSSIAN PUNISHMENTS

The punishments for wrongdoers were even more savage than in Elizabethan England.

They had ingenious ways of torturing their victims. They also went in for mass executions in Red Square.

Tax dodgers were beaten daily on their feet until they found a way to pay their debts.

19. RUSSIAN NUDES

What scandalised the English more than anything else was the immodesty of Russian women.

Communal steam baths were popular in Moscow, Women were in the habit of emerging from their baths quite naked on to the streets to shock the blushing English.

20. A NEW CENTURY AND NEW IDEAS

Ivan had died before the birth of the 17th century. Russia was to erupt in the most widespread and bloody revolution as the 1600s started.

The old Queen died in England just after 1600 and the political framework was to fracture under the new kings from Scotland.

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